Thursday, October 20, 2016

Science, Technology, Engineering and Math: Education for Global Leadership >>> Amateur Radio YL's

“[Science]“[Science] is more than a school subject, or the periodic table, or the properties of waves. It is an approach to the world, a critical way to understand and explore and engage with the world, and then have the capacity to change that world..."

— President Barack Obama, March 23, 2015

The United States has developed as a global leader, in large part, through the genius and hard work of its scientists, engineers, and innovators. In a world that’s becoming increasingly complex, where success is driven not only by what you know, but by what you can do with what you know, it’s more important than ever for our youth to be equipped with the knowledge and skills to solve tough problems, gather and evaluate evidence, and make sense of information. These are the types of skills that students learn by studying science, technology, engineering, and math—subjects collectively known as STEM.

Yet today, few American students pursue expertise in STEM fields—and we have an inadequate pipeline of teachers skilled in those subjects. That’s why President Obama has set a priority of increasing the number of students and teachers who are proficient in these vital fields.

Projected Percentage Increases In STEM Jobs from 2010 to 2020: 14% for all occupations, 16% for Mathematics, 22% for Computer Systems Analysts, 32% for Systems Software Developers, 36% for Medical Scientists, 62% for Biomedical Engineers
The need

All young people should be prepared to think deeply and to think well so that they have the chance to become the innovators, educators, researchers, and leaders who can solve the most pressing challenges facing our nation and our world, both today and tomorrow. But, right now, not enough of our youth have access to quality STEM learning opportunities and too few students see these disciplines as springboards for their careers.expand/collapse

The goals

President Obama has articulated a clear priority for STEM education: within a decade, American students must "move from the middle to the top of the pack in science and math." The Obama Administration also is working toward the goal of fairness between places, where an equitable distribution of quality STEM learning opportunities and talented teachers can ensure that all students have the chance to study and be inspired by science, technology, engineering, and math—and have the chance to reach their full potential.expand/collapse

The plan

The Committee on STEM Education (CoSTEM), comprised of 13 agencies—including all of the mission-science agencies and the Department of Education—are facilitating a cohesive national strategy, with new and repurposed funds, to increase the impact of federal investments in five areas: 1.) improving STEM instruction in preschool through 12th grade; 2.) increasing and sustaining public and youth engagement with STEM; 3.) improving the STEM experience for undergraduate students; 4.) better serving groups historically underrepresented in STEM fields; and 5.) designing graduate education for tomorrow's STEM workforce.expand/collapse

Supporting Teachers and Students in STEM

At the Department of Education, we share the President’s commitment to supporting and improving STEM education. Ensuring that all students have access to high-quality learning opportunities in STEM subjects is a priority, demonstrated by the fact that dozens of federal programs have made teaching and learning in science, technology, engineering, and math a critical component of competitiveness for grant funding. Just this year, for the very first time, the Department announced that its Ready-to-Learn Television grant competition would include a priority to promote the development of television and digital media focused on science.

The Department’s Race to the Top-District program supports educators in providing students with more personalized learning—in which the pace of and approach to instruction are uniquely tailored to meet students’ individual needs and interests—often supported by innovative technologies. STEM teachers across the country also are receiving resources, support, training, and development through programs like Investing in Innovation (i3), the Teacher Incentive Fund, the Math and Science Partnerships program, Teachers for a Competitive Tomorrow, and the Teacher Quality Partnerships program.

Because we know that learning happens everywhere—both inside and outside of formal school settings—the Department’s 21st Century Community Learning Centers program is collaborating with NASA, the National Park Service, and the Institute of Museum and Library Services to bring high-quality STEM content and experiences to students from low-income, high-need schools. This initiative has made a commitment to Native-American students, providing about 350 young people at 11 sites across six states with out-of-school STEM courses focused on science and the environment.

And in higher education, the Hispanic-Serving Institutions-STEM program is helping to increase the number of Hispanic students attaining degrees in STEM subjects.

This sampling of programs represents some of the ways in which federal resources are helping to assist educators in implementing effective approaches for improving STEM teaching and learning; facilitating the dissemination and adoption of effective STEM instructional practices nationwide; and promoting STEM education experiences that prioritize hands-on learning to increase student engagement and achievement.

WOMEN and STEM>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Learn more

Five-Year Strategic Plan for STEM Education [PDF]
STEM Programs at ED
Green Strides Program
Women in STEM
2015 White House Science Fair
President Obama’s Remarks
Educate to Innovate
Civil Rights Data Collection
College- and Career-Ready/ STEM Access Snapshot [PDF]

Wednesday, October 19, 2016

beverage antennas

here is some more information on beverage antennas w8ji thanx

beverage antennas link

My History With Beverages

I originally began experimenting with long, low, wire antennas in the 1960's. Even though I had a working mostly homebrew station, I now realize I had only a small idea what I was doing, and almost no understanding of what made antennas work.

My entry into Ham radio was from modified broadcast radios, and the very active 160-meter mobile group in Toledo, Ohio. I always thought the longer the antenna, the better the "pickup". was fascinated by the distant AM broadcast, lower shortwave, and 160-meter signals heard with long antennas. My early antennas were nothing more than hundreds or thousands of feet of very thin magnet wire, strung over tree limbs and along telephone poles (which had steel climbing pegs), all through a typical crowded 1950's suburban neighborhood. Unfortunately my early experiments were hampered by lack of room. Thin magnet wire, unwound from early-radio speaker field magnets, strung in the middle of the night through a crowded suburban neighborhood across neighbor's small lots, doesn't stay up long.

In the early 1970's, I moved to a house with several acres of woods. The soil was a very wet, sandy, black loam. A neighbor just north of me, W8FPU (Parker) was actually working a couple of VK's on 160-meters, something very rare at the time. Using information from a series of engineering lectures by John "Jack" Kuecken (now SK) and correspondence with Stew W1BB, I installed my first "real" Beverage antenna. I was delighted to find a large improvement in weak-signal reception from very simple, inexpensive, easy-to-install wire antennas. Eventually, that system evolved from a few long single wires to a two-wire reversible system. The two-wire system used two Beverages, oriented 90 degrees from each other. This gave four direction coverage. That system, with the addition of an in-phase and out-of-phase combiner, evolved into a forced-null system using just two reversible antennas. This was before binocular cores were available, and ferrite beads were just appearing. At the early date, I used a series of 73-mix beads to make my transformers, even publishing a few articles in small newsletters.

I continued to improve or refine my Beverage antennas over the years. Virtually all of my Beverage antennas now are arrays of multiple Beverages, not just single wires. While my large circle arrays of verticals, or broadside endfire arrays of verticals, are about even with two long phased Beverages, the Beverage arrays are simpler systems. Arrays of broadside Beverages remain my primary DX receiving antennas for the lowest bands. There isn't any other receiving antenna that is as simple, as easy to construct and maintain, and as foolproof as a Beverage! The only significant Beverage disadvantage is the long physical length required, and maintenance of a very long antenna. If we want significant directivity, Beverages (like all long wire arrays) require a great deal of space .

Testing and Comparing Antennas

I work a little different than many or most people when experimenting, always A-B testing and comparing antennas over time. This is partly because a newer, bigger, or better looking antenna always feels better. Even before something is used, especially if the "something new" involved effort or expense, we can "like" it and become emotionally invested in it. We want something new to work better, so we look for everything "good".

I credit a 7th and 8th grade science teacher for educating students about this phenomena. Early in school, a science teacher at Olney middle school in Northwood, Ohio demonstrated how easily and often false conclusions are reached, based on feelings about results or past performance memory. One year of science with Mr. Kohler, when I was 12 or 13 years old, changed how I look at many things in life. Because of Mr. Kohler, I almost always retain a reference or control, try to use direct measurements of what I actually want to know, and use multiple methods when possible. Mr. Kohler demonstrated how easy it was to reach false conclusions, unless we use valid measurements.

Most antenna myths and misconceptions, many making it into print in articles, come from repeating feelings or unsubstantiated claims, or are based on improper measurements or models. I've seen comparisons years apart, going on memory of how signals were on some other antenna that was long gone!

I presently have a great deal of room, with wiring in place to install multiple antennas, and reasonably good test equipment. This allows installation of multiple antenna systems at the same time, which allows direct comparisons over time, as well as measurements. I constantly refine antenna systems by comparing systems against each other for extended periods of time, usually more than a year.

there are more pictures and documents please go to link above

Monday, October 17, 2016

wanna do some Ham Radio homebrewing.. check this out

here is a site with any homebrew project you could ever think of.

it is a great place for people to go through with GIRL or Boy scouts
or even a training class..

here is the home brew link

73 ka1uln

Thursday, October 13, 2016

Ada Lovelace Biography

Mathematician, Computer Programmer (1815–1852)


NAME Ada Lovelace
OCCUPATION Mathematician, Computer Programmer
BIRTH DATE December 10, 1815
DEATH DATE November 27, 1852
PLACE OF BIRTH London, United Kingdom
PLACE OF DEATH London, United Kingdom
AKA Ada Lovelace
Countess of Lovelace
NICKNAME Enchantress of Numbers
MAIDEN NAME Augusta Ada Byron
FULL NAME Augusta Ada King
A gifted mathematician, Ada Lovelace is considered to have written instructions for the first computer program in the mid-1800s.

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The daughter of famed poet Lord Byron, Augusta Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace—better known as "Ada Lovelace"—was born in London on December 10, 1815. Ada showed her gift for mathematics at an early age. She translated an article on an invention by Charles Babbage, and added her own comments. Because she introduced many computer concepts, Ada is considered the first computer programmer. Ada died on November 27, 1852.

Early Years

Ada Lovelace, born as Augusta Ada Byron, was the only legitimate child of the famous poet Lord George Gordon Byron. Lord Byron's marriage to Ada's mother, Lady Anne Isabella Milbanke Byron, was not a happy one. Lady Byron separated from her husband only weeks after their daughter was born. A few months later, Lord Byron left England, and Ada never saw her father again. He died in Greece when Ada was 8 years old.

Ada had an unusual upbringing for an aristocratic girl in the mid-1800s. At her mother's insistence, tutors taught her mathematics and science. Such challenging subjects were not standard fare for women at the time, but her mother believed that engaging in rigorous studies would prevent Lovelace from developing her father's moody and unpredictable temperament. Ada was also forced to lie still for extended periods of time because her mother believed it would help her develop self-control.

From early on, Lovelace showed a talent for numbers and language. She received instruction from William Frend, a social reformer; William King, the family's doctor; and Mary Somerville, a Scottish astronomer and mathematician. Somerville was one of the first women to be admitted into the Royal Astronomical Society.

Babbage and the Analytical Engine

Around the age of 17, Ada met Charles Babbage, a mathematician and inventor. The pair became friends, and the much older Babbage served as a mentor to Ada. Through Babbage, Ada began studying advanced mathematics with University of London professor Augustus de Morgan.

Ada was fascinated by Babbage's ideas. Known as the father of the computer, he invented the difference engine, which was meant to perform mathematical calculations. Ada got a chance to look at the machine before it was finished, and was captivated by it. Babbage also created plans for another device known as the analytical engine, designed to handle more complex calculations.

Ada was later asked to translate an article on Babbage's analytical engine that had been written by Italian engineer Luigi Federico Menabrea for a Swiss journal. She not only translated the original French text in English, but also added her own thoughts and ideas on the machine. Her notes ended up being three times longer than the original article. Her work was published in 1843, in an English science journal. Ada used only the initials "A.A.L.," for Augusta Ada Lovelace, in the publication.

In her notes, Ada described how codes could be created for the device to handle letters and symbols along with numbers. She also theorized a method for the engine to repeat a series of instructions, a process known as looping that computer programs use today. Ada also offered up other forward-thinking concepts in the article. For her work, Ada is often considered to be the first computer programmer.

Ada's article attracted little attention when she was alive. In her later years, she tried to develop mathematical schemes for winning at gambling. Unfortunately, her schemes failed and put her in financial peril. Ada died from uterine cancer in London on November 27, 1852. She was buried next to her father, in the graveyard of the Church of St. Mary Magdalene in Nottingham, England.

Personal Life

In 1835, Ada married William King, who became the Earl of Lovelace three years later. She then took the title of Countess of Lovelace. They shared a love of horses and had three children together. From most accounts, he supported his wife's academic endeavors. Ada and her husband socialized with many of the interesting minds of the times, including scientist Michael Faraday and writer Charles Dickens.

Ada's health suffered, however, after a bout of cholera in 1837. She had lingering problems with asthma and her digestive system. Doctors gave her painkillers, such as laudanum and opium, and her personality began to change. She reportedly experienced mood swings and hallucinations.


Ada Lovelace's contributions to the field of computer science were not discovered until the 1950s. Her notes were reintroduced to the world by B.V. Bowden, who republished them in Faster Than Thought: A Symposium on Digital Computing Machines in 1953. Since then, Ada has received many posthumous honors for her work. In 1980, the U.S. Department of Defense named a newly developed computer language "Ada," after Lovelace.

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Citation Information

Article Title

Ada Lovelace Biography
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Tuesday, October 4, 2016

need a time sync tool (when running digital modes)?

here is the ultimate time sync tool when running digital modes:

see ya on FELD HELL 10.141 10.142

Sunday, October 2, 2016

DIGITAL BAND(guide..not official) PLAN FOR VHF/UHF

DIGITAL BAND(guide..not official) PLAN FOR VHF/UHF

This is NOT an official band plan but a guide for most "normal" digital
activity and areas will vary in different places so please use common
courtesy and if you are unsure ask local operators and or listen.....but
never run digital on the SSB/CW calling frequencies or the EME subbands

6 Meters CW/SSB/Digital
50.060-50.080 CW Beacons (unattended sub-band)
50.080-50.100 CW QSO's
50.100-50.125 DX Window
50.110 DX Calling Frequency
50.125 North American SSB Calling Frequency
50.133-50.430 Voice Nets see:

50.255 FSK441 lower practical limit for most QSO's
50.260 FSK441 Calling Frequency
50.265 JT-65
50.285 FSK441 upper practical limit for most QSO's
50.290 PSK31 (USB)
50.291 PropNET (with +1500hz PSK audio)
50.293 WSPR
50.300 or 50.700 RTTY?
50.620 Packet Calling Frequency
6 Meters
50.680 SSTV

2 Meters CW/SSB/Digital
144.00-144.05 EME (CW)
144.05-144.06 Propagation beacons (old band plan)
144.06-144.10 General CW and weak signals
144.10-144.20 EME and weak-signal SSB
144.140 WSJT FSK441/JT44 calling frequency
144.110 to 144.160 WSJT FSK441 or JT44 (around this area)
144.131 PropNet +1500hz PSK audio)
144.200 National SSB calling frequency
144.20-144.30 General SSB operation, upper sideband
144.275-144.300 New beacon band
2 Meters FM Digital modes
145.500 SSTV (National SSTV Simplex FM Frequency)
145.550 FM PSK31, Hellschreiber

70 Centimeters CW/SSB/Digital
420.00-426.00 ATV repeater or simplex with 421.25 MHz video carrier control
links and experimental
426.00-432.00 ATV simplex with 427.250 MHz video carrier frequency
432.00-432.07 EME (Earth-Moon-Earth)
432.07-432.08 Propagation beacons (old band plan)
432.08-432.10 Weak-signal CW
432.100 70 cm calling frequency
432.11-432.20 WSJT JT44/FSK441 ?
432.150 SSB PSK
432.10-433.00 Mixed-mode and weak-signal work
432.30-432.40 New beacon band
441.000 Packet Calling Frequency


Thursday, September 29, 2016

YLRL DX/NA YL Anniversary Contest: 1400Z, Sep 30 to 0200Z, Oct 2

YLRL DX/NA YL Anniversary Contest: 1400Z, Sep 30 to 0200Z, Oct 2
Mode: CW, SSB, Digital
Bands: Any
Classes: (none)
Max operating hours: 24
Exchange: Serial No. + RS(T) + (ARRL Section/province/country)
Work stations: Once per band
QSO Points: W/VE Stations: 1 point per W/VE QSO
W/VE Stations: 2 points per DX QSO
DX Stations: 1 point per QSO with same continent
DX Stations: 2 points per QSO with different continent
Multipliers: Each section, province, country once
Power factor: x1.5 for 5-100W
Power factor: x3 for 5W or less
Score Calculation: Total score = total QSO points x total mults x power factor
Submit logs by: October 31, 2016
E-mail logs to: IamAF7BI[at]gmail[dot]com
Mail logs to: Marilyn Melhorn AF7BI
29139 NE Hammond Ct
Battle Ground, WA 98604
Find rules at:

40 meter MOXON ham radio antenna

here is a 40 Meter MOXON.

Tuesday, September 27, 2016

NEAR-FEST Deerfield New Hampshire October 14 - 15 2016

New England Amateur Radio Festival
October 14 & 15, 2016
Deerfield, New Hampshire
Admission Tickets
Open Now
Get your NEAR-Ly Free Ticket!
Vendor and Exhibitors
Vendors and Exhibitors
Open Now!
Door Prizes (NEAR-Fest XX)
There will be TWO Grand Prize Drawings at NEAR-Fest XX
That’s right, TWO KX3 Radios will be given away, one on Friday – One on Saturday
More Details: How to Win
Elecraft KX3
Be sure to get your NEAR-Ly free ticket stubs into the barrel in the relaxation area

— FAQs —
There seems to be some confusion with some people about logging in/registering on this web site:
You do NOT need to log in/register to view this web site. The only reason to do so is if you are going to make a purchase.
If you are a registered user on the Forum at, this is a SEPARATE registration process, your login and password may be different.
Only Vendors are required to register per the expectations of the Commercial Operations Staff of NEAR-Fest. Most have done so years ago and return year after year.
Admission tickets (which include an opportunity for winning a Door Prize) and inside parking passes CAN be purchased at this site, and users are required to register at this site if you want to complete an online purchase.. HOWEVER, purchasing admission tickets online is NOT REQUIRED, tickets and inside parking passes can also be purchased at the Gate. If tickets are purchased at this site please bring your receipt with you and produce it at the gate. You will be given the number of tickets purchased. NO TICKETS WILL BE MAILED.
If you are making a purchase and are unregistered, you register by following the links which take you to the appropriate pages to make your purchase. READ THE DIRECTIONS AND EXPLANATIONS SPECIFIC TO EACH TYPE OF PURCHASE, then select the items you wish to purchase and fill out the contact form at the bottom of the purchase page so we will have a record of your purchase. Admission Tickets and Inside Parking Passes MUST be paid for at the time of your purchase. PLEASE MAKE SURE YOUR EMAIL ADDRESS IS ENTERED CORRECTLY. Admission ticket transactions entered but not paid for will be deleted. Once your purchase is complete you will receive an emailed purchase confirmation (bring this with you to NEAR-Fest) and a system-generated password for logging in to the web site.
Use your email address as the username and system generated password to log on to the site in the future. Once logged in go to “My Bookings” under the Home tab to look at your purchases. Now that you are registered you can simply log in to the web site to make purchases for the next NEAR-Fest.
You can change your password by clicking on the “Forgot your password?” link and following the instructions.
All financial transactions are processed by Paypal. We only store contact information necessary to record successful purchases so you can get what you paid for. We do not process or store any bank account or credit card information at this site.

Sunday, September 25, 2016

Ladder Line - LOW LOSS - LOW LOSS

this Information is specifically about ladder line.

here is an example of a dipole with ladder line


here is a typical dipole design

Spacing of the wires in ladder line (and their relative diameter) sets the impedance of the line.

advantages of ladder line
LOW LOSS, less expensive, easy to make, perfect for dipole or loop

disadvantages of ladder line
should not touch almost anything, (house, leaves, metal, trees, etc)

if you know of more tips to help other hams please forward your information to



Thursday, September 22, 2016

BYLARA Convention 2016

Convention 2016

The girls of BYLARA are now in the process of planning the convention.

Dates: October 3rd – 10th 2016.

If you have any ideas of what you would like to see or do, or tours you might like, please get hold of:
Carol Jenni, or Judith .

They will take everything into consideration and put the best package together for your enjoyment.

Please note that RSGB Convention for 2016 will be from 7th – 9th October, so those are the dates to work around for our IYL event.

We hope to have something arranged for the three days previous as well, leading up to the RSGB lectures etc.

Elaine 2E1BVS and I spoke to Graham Coomber (RSGB General Manager) at Blackpool.
He is willing to help us in any way that he can and has invited us to attend this year to get a ‘feel’ for the facilities on offer.
So make sure your passports are up to date.
The convention will be held in Milton Keynes

Wednesday, September 21, 2016

Is your HF rig Calibrated?

I was curious to know if what I was seeing on my HF radio display was what I was hearing
or when someone gives me a frequency would my radio be spot on?

we here is the answer: YES of course it is has a superhet.
but the other way is TUNE TO WWV 15.000 OR 10.000

this told me my radio was spot on.

for more information about this please
HF calibration

thanx so Ria N2RJ for more information on this. She is full of ham radio information


Saturday, September 17, 2016

Amateur Radio Q-Codes

here is an excellent list and explanation of Ham radio Q-CODES.

If I may ask if we (ham radio operators) could use these as much as possible.


here is a sample thanx for w5www

The Amateur Radio Q-Code Signal Question Answer, Advice or Order QRG Will you indicate my exact frequency in kilocycles?

Your frequency is ... kc.

QRH Does my frequency vary? Your frequency varies.

QRI How is the tone of my transmission? The tone of your transmission is ... 1. Good. 2. Variable. 3. Bad.

QRJ Are you receiving me badly? Are my signals weak? I cannot receive you. Your signals are too weak.

QRK What is the legibility of my signals (1 to 5)? The legibility of your signals is ... (1 to 5).

QRL * Are you busy? I am busy (or busy with....). Please do not interfere.

QRM * Are you being interfered with? I am being interfered with.

QRN * Are you troubled by static? I am troubled by static.

many many more please check out the link KA1ULN

here is another link for qcodes >>

(please confirm all qso's)

Thursday, August 11, 2016

ARRL The Doctor is In Podcast .. IS HERE

ARRL The Doctor is In Podcast

Welcome to the home of the bi-weekly ARRL The Doctor is In podcast -- a lively discussion of all things technical! The Doctor is none other than ARRL's Joel Hallas, W1ZRDoctor_is_In_Podcast_Icon_2.jpg, who has been answering questions about Amateur Radio in the Doctor Is In column in QST since 2006.

Hosted by ARRL Publications Manager Steve Ford, WB8IMY, ARRL The Doctor is In podcast is a twice-monthly, 20-minute podcast that answers YOUR questions about Amateur Radio's technical challenges.

You can subscribe to the podcast in Apple iTunes or on Stitcher.

Archived episodes will be available here.

Do you have a question for the Doctor? Click here to e-mail your question and we may answer it in a future podcast!

Download the arrl the doctor is in

taken from

Monday, August 8, 2016

BOXBORO September 9, 10, & 11 and BARS meeting and VE session

September 9, 10, & 11 Boxboro 2016

Boxboro 2016

Forums, Classes, Banquets all three days
Exhibit Hall & Flea Market : Sat 9-5 & Sun 9-2

At the Holiday Inn Boxboro Woods, Boxborough, Massachusetts

Link to purchase tickets>

see ya there... LOOK FOR KA1ULN JUST SAY HI

While you are in our neighborhood Please use our repeater 147.12 pl 103.5

we have a net on wednesday nights at 00:00 utc 8 pm est 147.12 103.5

if you are here on September 7 please come by the meeting

Next Meeting is September 7, 2016 at 7 PM.
Topic: CARD SORT and Pizza
Location: Matthews Memorial Church, 128 Gorham St., Chelmsford MA
BARS VE session August 11 at 7:00 pm est
Location: Matthews Memorial Church, 128 Gorham St., Chelmsford MA

Friday, August 5, 2016

Try WSJT for weak signal contacts

I've done quite a few things in amateur radio, but one of the things I absolutely enjoy is DXing. I also enjoy pulling out the weak ones from a pileup or working weak signals in general.  But on traditional modes it can be a bit frustrating, especially on fickle bands like 6 meters. Enter the WSJT modes.

First things first, if you're looking to have a nice long chat with a friend, look elsewhere. The mode is not for this kind of stuff. Rather, you are getting a basic signal report and grid square exchange. You may exchange a short text message but only 13 characters maximum (move over, Twitter!) Secondly, you do not need to or want to run high power in most cases. This is great news for those who like to operate QRP. 

About the mode, history and origins

The mode was developed by noted Astrophysicist and Nobel Prize Laureate, Joe Taylor, K1JT. Joe's extensive resumé includes discovering pulsars using the NRAO radio telescopes in West Virginia. Prior to that he had worked with Jocelyn Bell, who had discovered the first pulsars. He first started out in amateur radio as a teenager and this fueled his interest in radio astronomy. One can clearly see how his love for "weak signal work" goes well beyond amateur radio or the solar system, for that matter. 

The mode can allow one to work signals that are not audible to the human ear, many dB below the noise floor. It does this by repetition and slow transmission. This is why you can't rag chew with it, but it is great for working DX and new grid squares.

It is used extensively for moonbounce (EME) where signals are reflected off the moon. However EME operators often use 500+ watts to compensate for path loss. Prior to the WSJT modes you'd see EME enthusiasts with stacks and stacks upon stacks of yagis pointing at the sky, and 1.5kw on 2 meters. They'd run CW and sometimes SSB. They'd send Ts to verify the signal and make skeds on HF or internet. While much of that is still done today, it is now possible to point at the moon and CQ with just one or two yagis and a few hundred watts. It is also possible to make contacts on supposedly dead bands like 6 meters. It is also possible to work DX on HF with small wire antennas.

Software setup

So how do you get cooking with JT modes anyway? We'll do a simple JT65 setup here. This is a very basic guide to get you started. 

You'll need:
  • SSB capable radio and your antenna
  • Sound card interface - external sound card interface like a SignaLink or some newer radios (like the Elecraft K3S or IC7300) have it built in and accessible via the USB port.
  • PC or Mac with WSJT software (JT65-HF or WSJT-X usually)
  • Internet synchronized PC clock (very important).
  • Patience and quick reaction time.

Once you get all of those together, you can then configure the software. I'll keep it simple as I use JT65-HF. WSJT-X is supposedly better but I've had better luck with JT65-HF. However, JT65-HF hasn't really been maintained since about 2013. But it still works very well. 

I use Windows for my shack PC but you can use any OS including Linux and Mac OS X. WSJT software and the protocol are all open source so you can compile it for any OS. 

A note about time sync: JT65 is a timed mode, meaning that everything fires off at certain times. Therefore your PC clock must be in sync. You can use software like Dimension 4 or Meinberg to do that. Unfortunately the built in time sync feature in Windows doesn't seem sufficient. You may need administrator privileges on your PC to do this.

Once you get the time sync portion straightened out and you've installed JT65-HF, you can set it up easily like this. Most important is the audio device (USB sound card) and your callsign and grid:

Make sure you have PTT and optionally, rig control (for band changes. It supports OmniRig and Ham Radio Deluxe, or serial port control. Note: if you have a SignaLink it uses VOX so there's no need to configure PTT in that case. But some sound card interfaces require it.

This is the main window:

You generally set your radio to USB (upper sideband) mode. Set power to low power (maximum 25-35 watts, many use 5 watts or less). Turn off speech compressor/processor. You can use the mode anywhere on the digital sub-bands but most people use the JT65 window. Here are the frequencies. Note that these are the dial frequencies in kHz you set your radio to:

  • 160m - 1836-1838
  • 80m - 3576
  • 40m - 7076
  • 20m - 14076
  • 30m - 10138
  • 20m - 14076
  • 17m - 18102
  • 15m - 21076
  • 12m - 24917
  • 10m - 28076
  • 6m - 50276
My favorite hangouts are 6m and 40m. I have worked many grids on 6m using JT65.

How a typical JT65 QSO works:

0001z  At the top of the minute a station will transmit "CQ <callsign> <grid square>" 
0002z  The responding operator will send her callsign and 4 digit grid square.
0003z: The CQing operator (who she has now answered) will send a signal report. 
0004z: The responding operator will send a "R" (roger) and her signal report
0005z: The CQing operator will send "RRR"
0006z: The responding operator will send "RRR"
0007z: The CQing operator will send "73"
0008z: The responding operator will send "73"

Yes, that is 8 whole minutes!

QSO is logged using the "log QSO" button. The signal report is in dB and is generated automatically. You can put in your transmitter power if desired. 

Most people take a shortcut and can cut that down to 6 minutes by omitting the RRRs from minute 5 and 6 and simply send 73s. 

So it would be something like this:

0001z - CQ KA1ULN FN41
0002z - KA1ULN N2RJ FN21
0003z - N2RJ KA1ULN -08
0004z - KA1ULN N2RJ -09
0005z - N2RJ KA1ULN 73
0006z - KA1ULN N2RJ 73

I hit "log QSO" button and I'm done. 

Note that each transmission lasts 47 seconds and you have to make your decision in 13 seconds what to transmit next. It's sort of like playing 5 minute lightning chess where you press the clock after each move, except that each move is timed. You will see the waterfall stop and a red line where you're supposed to transmit. You'll also see the decoded messages in the window. Messages sent to you are red. General CQs are green. If you have your headphones on you'll hear when the other side's transmission.

I wish there was a way to substitute 88 or 33 in the protocol but from what I gather, 73 is hard coded in the protocol. 

By the way, each transmission is basically brick on key for 47 seconds! This is one big reason why most people do not run high power as their rigs would overheat and their finals would burn up. 

But I was this close to working that rare grid on 6!

JT65-HF generates a log file in ADIF format that you can import into your log software. The log file is located at C:\Users\<your_username>\Appdata\JT65-HF\.  I prefer to consolidate my logs into Ham Radio Deluxe so this works perfectly for me. Then I can upload to LoTW and other systems. 

A word about QSLing

The final courtesy of the QSO is the QSL, and it isn't finished until the paperwork is done! The good news is that most JT65 users use LoTW.  Many also use eQSL and logbook. This saves the time and expense of sending for QSL cards. With LoTW you can apply toward VUCC, DXCC, WAS and other awards quite easily. With eQSL you can apply for their own eAwards or CQ magazine awards such as WAZ or WPX. QRZ has their own awards system as well. 

And that's it! Now you can make a simple JT65 QSO and work the rare grid squares with low power and a compromise antenna. 

Until next time! CUAGN on my waterfall.

Ria, N2RJ

PS - I'm new here and will be writing from time to time. Niece has graciously allowed me to contribute to her blog, so we can have a source of knowledge for YLs (and anyone, really) to enhance their experience in the hobby. My info is on if you'd like to contact me. 

Thursday, July 28, 2016

Grounding, Radials, counterpoises, rods and ribbons, etc

here are the notes from the May 21 presentation

session May 21, 2015 echolink 8 pm Yl NFarl-r

Grounding (RODS and Ribbons)
May 21, 2015 YLRL echolink net

An effective ground system is necessary for every amateur station.
The mission of the ground system is twofold. FIRST, it reduces the possibility of electrical shocks if something in a piece of equipment should fail and the chassis or cabinet become “HOT.” If connected properly, three-wire electrical systems ground the chassis. A ground system to prevent shock hazard is generally referred to as “DC GROUND.”

The second job the ground system must perform is to provide a low-impedance path to ground for any stray RF current inside the station. Stray RF can cause equipment to malfunction and contributes to RFI problems. This low-impedance path is usually called “RF GROUND.”

The first step in building a ground system is to bound together the chassis of all equipment in your station. Ordinary hookup wire will do for a dc ground, but for a good RF ground you need a low-impedance conductor, COPPER STRAP sold as 'flashing copper,” is excellent for this application, it maybe hard to find. Braid for coaxial cable is popular choice; it is readily available, makes a low-impedance conductor, and is flexible. You see this on roofs in south and west.

Grounding straps can be run from equipment chassis to equipment chassis.1/2 copper water pipe runs entire length of operating bench. A thick braid from RG-8 cable runs from each piece of equipment to a clamp on the pipe.

After equipment is bonded to common ground bus the ground bus must be wired to a good earth ground. This run should be with heavy conductor (braid – I CALL RIBBON) should be short and direct as possible.

Drive one or more grounds rods into earth where conductor leaves the house. Ground rods-8 to 10 feet can be acquired from electrical supply house (home depot or lowe's or the like) steel with heavy copper plating.

Once rod is in ground clamp the conductor from the station ground bus to it with a clamp that can be tightened securely and will NOT RUST. Copper-plated clamps made specifically for this purpose can be found and electrical supply stores. If possible solder the connection.

ANOTHER popular station ground is the COLD (not hot) water pipe system in the building.
Length of of ground wire should be multiple of ¼ wave.

Ground noise:
Noise in ground systems can affect sensitive radio equipment. It is usually related to one of three problems:
1. Insufficient ground conductor wire
2. Loose ground connections or
3. Ground loops

liberal use lock washer and star washers is highly recommended
Ground noise can affect receive and transmitted signals

The antennas that we mount are affected by the presence of ground. At times, the ground is a reflector and at other times, it is an absorber.
The ground around the base of a quarter wave vertical antenna needs considerable help in the form of radials, if this type of antenna is to perform well.
When an antenna that is a near ground radiates, some of the energy will strike the ground and some of the energy will be reflected. The reflected energy will bounce back to the antenna and effect the pattern of current distribution in the radiator, and thus effect the pattern and the feedpoint impedance of the antenna.

After antennas, station grounding is probably the most discussed subject in amateur radio and it is also the one replete with the most misconceptions. The first thing to know is that there are three functions served by grounding in ham shacks: 1. Electrical Safety 2. Stray RF Suppression (or simply RF Grounding) 3. Lightning Protection. Each has it's own set of requirements, but not all station setups need every kind of ground. In fact, some setups don't use a ground at all! The articles on this page will help clear up some of the myths and mystery surrounding this popular topic.

Grounds fulfill three distinct functions. The best ground for one function isn't necessarily the best for another. The three are:
a. Safety ground. This protects you from a shock hazard if one of the mains or high voltage power supply wires contacts the chassis due to some kind of fault. The requirements for this ground are spelled out in your state's electrical code. I believe that most states adopt the National Electrical Code (NEC). The safety ground conductor in your wall sockets should be connected to ground according to this code, and your rig's chassis should be connected to the safety ground.

b. Lightning ground. The requirements for a ground for lightning protection are much more stringent than for a safety ground. The topic has been discussed in this group many times, and there are numerous resources available for learning how to make a ground system for lightning protection. (See the TIS Page on Lightning Protection)

c. RF ground. This is required only for certain types of antennas-- ones which require current flow to ground to complete the antenna circuit. An example is a quarter-wave vertical. One wire of the feedline connects to the base of the antenna, and the other connects to ground. The connection to ground has to have a low RF resistance, or you'll expend too much of your power heating the ground. A few radial wires will provide a moderately low loss connection. A ground rod will help a little, but the RF resistance will be high, resulting in quite a bit of loss. Chapter 8 of the ARRL Antenna Book shows the approximate trade between resistance and number of radials. If your antenna is much shorter than ¼ wavelength, you'll need many, many radials to get reasonable efficiency. If it's longer, you can get by with fewer. A ½ wavelength base-fed vertical needs only a very modest ground, and a ground rod is adequate. The requirements for various other end-fed antennas depend on their length. If you use a "complete" antenna like a dipole or a ground plane (that is, one that doesn't require your feedline to connect to ground), you don't need a RF ground, as long as you keep common-mode currents off your feedline. A "current" or "choke" balun is most commonly used for this.




Besides one lead from inside the shack, the others go to several other well spaced ground rods, a lead to the tower base (which has it's own ground system), and finally, the power company ground, which is only about a foot away.

K9WN Jake
picture is taken from k9wn

Youtube video showing how to drive a 10 foot ground rod into the ground with water.


Is Your Radio Equipment REALLY Grounded?

You may believe your radio equipment, antenna and tower are well-grounded. After all, you drove the ground rods into the earth yourself and connected the ground wire to the rods with heavy-duty clamps.

With an ohmmeter, I measured an open circuit from the ground wire to its grounding clamp! This was true for both the equipment ground outside my radio room and for the ground at the base of my beam antenna.

I do understand that contact points oxidize and their resistance increases. But the ohmmeter's needle didn't move even on the instrument's X 1000 range! I had no grounds that worked!

military handbook on grounding, bonding and shielding: A PDF download

any questions contact KB4GQN or KA1ULN


what kind of grounding do you have for your station?

Do you know what grounding is used for?

Please add your comments below about YOUR ground installation.

on May 21, at 8:00 EST come hear a understand Antennas part 3
GROUNDING: radials, counterpoises, rods and ribbons

Hope all of you can make it this week! We’ll be back on Echolink Node 560686 NF4GA-R repeater or locally on 145.47MHz PL100Hz (-) offset. It’s going to be a fun and exciting net! We are looking forward to everyone participating in the fun! Here’s how

thank you

Tuesday, June 28, 2016

SPIRIT OF 76 (7 Days, 6 Modes) QSO PARTY

SPIRIT OF 76 (7 Days, 6 Modes) QSO PARTY
This event will run for 7 days and be around July 4th of each year. Make as many contacts as you can during the week using 6 modes. The modes that will be used are as follows as well as the suggested frequencies to monitor:

1. USB (28.345)

2. RTTY (28.086)

3. CW (28.050)

4. FM (29.600)

5. PSK (28.120)

6. AM (29.000)

Scoring will be as normal for QSO Parties, 2 points for members and 1 point for non-members. Dupes will be allowed once for each mode. It will be possible to work the same call 6 times in each of the various modes for a maximum total of 12 points per call. All other normal rules apply. Logs shall be forwarded to the QSO Party Manager.

KG5BHY YL blog

here is another Blog by a YL



Friday, June 3, 2016

Incredible Amateur Radio Operator's Story on becoming a ham! - TA2AZP

1999 Earthquake victim

Zeynep Pirim
hi ladies, i want to tell more about myself, (forgive me for my bad english im trying to improve it, because i want to talk with you,)
i have lots of problem about being ham, firstly as you know turkey is developing country, and patriarchal, im very unhappy. also im student, im unemployed, im not able to buy hf radio and antenna etc. but i love my hobby, it changed my life. i have never sleep well before being ham, because, maybe you can remember, in 1999 İzmit earthquake occurred on 17 August, i was 11 years old, my friends died, everybody died. i lived bad things. you know..
there was only one (1) ham in yalova in 1999, so nobody could help us, 4 day later he could call the others for help. it was too late.
i wanted to be ham for this reason. but then, i noticed its also wonderful hobby. you can meet new people, new cultures, but only if you have money and if you are 'man' =)
so i decided to search for ladies, i found you, its unbelievable! i surpised and shocked. its big change for me. im reading your diyalog and trying to understand, improve my language, and one day when i will be resarch asistan in university i can buy my hf, i can find what i need to build antenna, and i can talk with you. i know its big dream but i believe. =)
thanks for help, thanks a lot. i'm proud of each one of you. loves, Zeynep / ta2azp , 33!"

Monday, May 23, 2016

ONLINE QSL'ing and confirming QSO's -update

On-Line Qsling ( & and QRZ.COM

More recently the ability to send/receive QSL confirmations has now become available via the Internet. To do this you only need to go to at and register for this free service. lotw Using your web browser you will be able to design your own QSL card, send cards to contacts you have made and receive cards. The service also provides features for organizing cards received and creating summaries of them. Currently eQSLs are acceptable for CQ Awards.

LOTW (Logbook Of The World) is also very popular. This system IS valid for DXCC & WAS Award claims so it is widely used. It is understood that at sometime in the future IOTA MAY also be available by this system. If you need advice on LOTW then please email me.

QSL Managers
Active DX stations often use a QSL manager especially when mail to the DX country is difficult at best and non-existent at worst. You will be aware of the QSL manager when looking up the address of the DX call on or by lists published in some of the amateur literature. You must know whether the station of who's QSL card you need uses a manager. it is imperitive that this information is added to your outgoing card.

Check out my QSL Manager page at for an overview or more information on the topic.
is one qsl and confirmation website used by many hams... it is easy to use, free and keeps tracks of your qso's so at some point you can can certificates (something you don't even have to keep track of QRZ does that for you.
so be my guest and create your account and log away... oh yes please don't forget to CONFIRM my qso with you. THE ELECTRONIC QSL CARD CENTRE

How does work?


Step 1 - Register
Step 2 - Design eQSL
Step 3 - Verify Identity
Step 4 - QSO
Step 5 - Upload Log to OutBox
Step 6 - Automatic Transfer
Step 7 - Details of Transfer
Step 8 - Retrieve from InBox

Go to Register on the Home Page

this information on eqsl is taken from

LET'S try to confirm all qso's so YL's will be More recognized. if You need more help with online confirming and logging.
send Niece and email KA1ULN@MAIL.COM

Wednesday, April 27, 2016

10-10 Int. Spring Contest, CW: 0001Z, May 7 to 2359Z, May 8

10-10 Int. Spring Contest, CW: 0001Z, May 7 to 2359Z, May 8
Mode: CW
Bands: 10m Only
Classes: Individual
Max power: non-QRP: >5 watts
QRP: 5 watts
Exchange: 10-10 Member: Name + 10-10 number + (state/province/country)
Non-Member: Name + 0 + (state/province/country)
QSO Points: 1 point per QSO with a non-member
2 points per QSO with a 10-10 member
Multipliers: (none)
Score Calculation: Total score = total QSO points
Submit logs by: May 23, 2016
E-mail logs to: tentencontest[at]ten-ten[dot]org
Upload log at:
Mail logs to: Dan Morris, KZ3T
3162 Covington Way
Lenoir, NC 28645
Find rules at:

Thursday, April 21, 2016



SPRING (Digital)

Qso Party: April 23-24, 2016
Logs Due:May 9, 2016

send logs to:

Dan Morris, KZ3T #41015
3162 Covington Way
Lenoir, NC 28645

Tuesday, April 12, 2016

YL.BEAM #33 April 2016

CQWS - CQ World Scouts
World Amateur Radio Day
Heard Island
Marconi: Australian Memorial; Marconi in Uruguay; 29th International Marconi Day
Silent Key - Mary Ann Crider, WA3HUP

CQWS - CQ World Scouts
An annual activity organized by the Union of Scouts Brazil UEB and recognized by the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM), aiming to promote the practice of Amateur Radio in Scouting, with the help of the Alumni, clubs and Associations experienced hams, promoting Scouting and preparing youth to use radio in supporting Scouting activities and Civil Defence.
14th CONTEST (2nd full weekend of April), 9 - 10 April 2016
UTC (13h00 GMT) on Saturday until 16h00 UTC (13h00 GMT) on Sunday. .
MODE AND BANDS SSB mode, on the bands of 80, 40, 20, 15 and 10 meters.

World Amateur Radio Day
April 18 is an Amateur Radio celebration, when we tell the world about the science we teach, the community service we can provide and the fun we have.
Amateur Radio pioneers met in Paris in 1925 and created the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) to support Amateur Radio worldwide. April 18, recognizes this anniversary

Radio is used to track penguins and Penguins form a link in this newsletter: they are found on Heard Island, which has generated a lot of DX excitment; and there is a colony on Phillips Island (Aus.) near the Marconi monument. A penguin swam past us when we were at anchor while visiting Punta del Este Este, Uruguay, a Marconi site. (Notice the similarity between Macaroni – penguin, and Marconi -man?)
Your Editor is suffering an identiy crisis at the moment having been allocated a new callsign. Fortunately I made contact with Heard Island as both ZS6YE (old) and ZS5YH (new).
Hope you enjoyed this newsletter, do appreciate hearing from you. Share your ideas with us. 33/88 Ed.

World Penguin Day April 25
The 25th of April marks the annual northwards migration of Adélie Penguins after spending the summer months on their breeding grounds in Antarctica. Like clockwork, the majority of the colony dives into the frigid waters and heads north to packed sea ice where they will overwinter in warmer conditions and fatten up for the breeding season in spring. This behaviour was first noticed by scientists working at the McMurdo Station in Antarctica, and the colony’s departure on this day every year ignited the notion of celebrating these flightless birds. Although there is no clear record on exactly when World Penguin Day first began, international festivities have been traced back to 2007. The day is used to create awareness and educate people on all species of penguins

Tracking Penguins
Electronic tags are commonly used to track animals as they migrate, or simply move around looking for food. Only in the last 15 years or so, have these instruments helped us to understand the range of an animal's habitat. These tags use information from Global Positioning Satellites (GPS) to record where it is at any given moment; but require a very large battery and are too large for an Adélie Penguin to carry. However, a much smaller one can simply store data to be retrieved later. The battery is smaller and, therefore, the instrument can be worn safely by a penguin. The memory chip in the instrument also records the time and date.
Two different kinds of tracking tags are used on Adelie Penguins: horizontally, over the surface of Earth to see where they go, and vertically, to see how deep they dive in the ocean.
1. Splash Tags. are medium-sized tags that are attached to the back of Adelie Penguins. Birds from nests with young chicks are selected, because the bird is committed to return and the tag can be retrieved. The tags are on the bird only a few days.
2. GLS tags. These tags are very small, with only a tiny battery (as in a hearing aid), and do not send a signal to a satellite. They are so small that they do not interfere with the penguin and can be comfortably worn, attached to a plastic leg band, for many months. These tags store information about where it is located twice a day for the entire time that the penguin is away from the colony, this can be for 9 months!! The penguins have to be found and captured the next year to remove the tag, and download the information into a computer.
Breeding Range of Macaroni Penguins covers: South Georgia, South Sandwich, South Orkneys, South Shetlands, Bouvet, Prince Edward, Marion, Crozet, Kerguelen, Heard, Falklands, Chile, Argentina and Antarctic Peninsula.
The Adélie penguin is a species of penguin common along the entire Antarctic coast, which is their only residence. Humboldt penguins are only found along the Pacific coast of South America.
The African Penguin is the only penguin species that breeds in Africa, and it is found nowhere else. Its distribution coincides roughly with the cold, nutrient rich, Benguela Current and by the availability of offshore islands as breeding sites.
The little penguin is the smallest species of penguin. In Australia, they are often called fairy penguins. In New Zealand, they are more commonly known as little blue penguins owing to their slate-blue plumage.
Mascots & logos - Linus Torvalds, the original creator of Linux (a popular operating system kernel), was once pecked by a little penguin while on holiday in Australia. Reportedly, this encounter encouraged Torvalds to select Tux as the official Linux mascot.

Heard Island expedition (Call-sign VKØEK)
is a major scientific/communications expedition to Heard Island, an Australian subAntarctic island lying at 53°S - 73°E. The island is extremely isolated and subject to extreme conditions; unoccupied and seldom visited. Nearly 1600 km from Antarctica and more than 3500 km from Africa, India, and Australia. 1,630 km south-east of Madagascar and 450 km south-east of the Kerguelen Islands, its closest neighbours in the Indian Ocean. The archipelago became a World Heritage Site in 1997; has no ports or harbours, ships must anchor offshore.
It has an active volcano (Big Ben) 2745 m; fast-moving, retreating glaciers; large seasonal populations of seals, penguins, and sea-birds; extensive areas of mosses, grasses, and other plants.
The islands have been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area because they support very large numbers of nesting sea-birds. Penguins are by far the most abundant birds on the islands, with four breeding species present: king, gentoo, macaroni and eastern rock-hopper.
A huge colony of macaroni penguins is located near Cape Lockyer on Heard Island, where they build nests on surprisingly steep slopes. Research was conducted on this colony during the 2003/04 expedition.
Heard Island is also well-known in the field of radio communications and the isolation of these islands present a challenge. One of the most sought-after activities is the temporary activation of such islands for making contacts with radio amateurs worldwide, an activity known as "DXing."
Hundreds of stations may be calling the DX-pedition at any one time (known as a 'pile-up') and many consider a contact with such islands a highlight of a lifetime of effort. great photo-essay on this site, be sure to visit it.

Local is Lekker: SARL Forum: Posted - 03/03/2016
“Aan al die Afrikaanse manne, die roepsein is nie VETKOEK nie”.

Marconi Memorial Australia
In 1859 an undersea telegraph cable was laid between mainland Australia and Tasmania but was erratic and lasted only 3 years. In July 1906, a technological sensation occurred when the first official wireless message was sent 215 miles across the sea to Tasmania. In July 2006 a re-enactment commemorated this event. A cairn marks the site of the re-enactment.
Point Lonsdale is 101 km south of Melbourne, at Queenscliff on the Bellarine Peninsula, over looking 'The Rip', the entry to Port Phillip Bay from the Bass Strait. The Lighthouse is at the end of Point Lonsdale Road and the memorial to Marconi is located on the foreshore. [AUS] GPS: Lat: 38.275928 S Long: 144.618331 E

Marconi in Uruguay By Carlos Casatti, CX1BE.
Since 1908 there was in Punta del Este, Uruguay a station from “Río de la Plata Wireless Telegraph Marconi Company”, its headquarters in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The station in Punta del Este, call sign was MMO, covered 500 Km. and used two wavelengths: one of 600 meters to communicate with ships and the other of 1700 meters to communicate with Berna, Swiss.
In 1910 Marconi travelled to the Río de la Plata region to install a radio station powerful enough to connect South America with Europe.
In Argentina, Marconi together with engineer Mr. Round, received the firsts signals from a distance more than 9,500 Km. First they received signals from U.S.A. and then from Ireland. This was a duplication of the first transatlantic transmission.
When the station in Punta del Este was closed, Buenos Aires was chosen for the Marconi telegraph network and by 1925 it was possible to send a telegram practically to any part of the occidental world. In memory of Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) a bust was unveiled on 16 January 2009, at Punta del Este, in Uruguay.
On 22/04/2006 – RSG (Radiogrupo Sur) Uruguay, held their 1st International Marconi Day (IMD)
CW1GM is their Special Callsign for Int. Marconi Day .

29th International Marconi Day 23rd April 2016 - from 0000 to 2359 UTC on the day
Held on a Saturday close to Marconi’s birthday, when amateur radio stations around the world operate from locations celebrating original historic sites. more info:

Silent Key - Mary Ann Crider, WA3HUP
died after a period of failing health. She was 91 and had been living in a nursing home for the past few years in Duncannon, Pennsylvania (USA).
Well-known former QSL manager for DX stations and a past manager of the W3 QSL Bureau. In 2005, the ARRL voted unanimously to name Crider the recipient of ARRL President’s Award.
DX chasers from the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s likely received DX QSL cards from stations for which she handled QSLing chores. Among other DX stations, Crider served as the QSL manager for JY1, King Hussein of Jordan, and she made several trips to Jordan to visit him.
She was licensed as a Novice in 1967 while she was in the US Air Force. Her late husband was W3GE (ex-W3HTO). Crider also was on the DXCC Honor Roll.

The views expressed do not necessarily reflect those of the YL Group, or the editor.
Facebook ‘HAM Yl’ Are you one of our Facebook friends?

9 April SARL Autumn QRP Sprint
9-10 April CQ World Scouts 14th Contest (2nd full weekend of April),
from 16h00 UTC Sat. - 16h00 UTC Sun.
14-15 April MARITIME RADIO DAY (MRD) Thursday 1200z - 1200z Friday.
18 April World Amateur Radio Day
23 April IMD (International Marconi Day) Saturday close to Marconi’s birthday 25
23 April Vasco da Gama Ocean Race 400 NM / 23 April Pesach (1st day)
24 April ZS4 Sprint
25 April World-penguin-day / 25 April closing date for May Radio ZS articles
27 April Int. Morse Code Day / 27 April Freedom Day (holiday S Africa)
6 -8 May AWA Valve /AM/ SSB QSO Parties

Early notice to enable travel reservations:
May 20-22 SARL National Convention 2016, Vaal triangle,
hosted by the Sasolburg Amateur Radio Club.
May 27-29 Norfolk Island. - WIA 2016 - AGM
Oct 3-10 BYLARA (only 6 Months away)

Tuesday, April 5, 2016

anyone want some FELD HELL? BANDPLAN

Frequencies Segment/Net name Mode Comments Website
3559 Feld Hell Digital
3575 Feld Hell Digital
3582-3589 Feld Hell Digital
7030-7040 Feld Hell Digital
7067-7069 Feld Hell Digital
7075-7082 Feld Hell Digital
10135-10145 Feld Hell Digital
14063 Feld Hell Digital Feld Hell watering hole
14063-14069 Feld Hell Digital Common Feld Hell range
14068 Feld Hell Digital
14073 Feld Hell Digital Feld Hell watering hole 2
14075-14082 Feld Hell Digital
14075-14082 Feld Hell Digital This is the old Feld Hell range, no longer in use
18101-18107 Feld Hell Digital
21063-21070 Feld Hell Digital
24920-24925 Feld Hell Digital
28063-28070 Feld Hell Digital
28100-28110 Feld Hell Digital

Monday, March 7, 2016


here is the link for tickets> NEAR-FEST TICKETS

link here for vendors and exhibitors>

YL - UK net wednesday morning 7.175.8 09:00z

Jennifer Jones - M0HZT - Shared publicly

every wednesday morning on 40m, 7.175.8 at 10.00am 09.00 zulu, ( UTC)

look forward to hearing you all

Also mark your calendars for BYLARA convention

October 3 thru October 10 2016

Milton Keynes

for more information please email:Jenn-M0HZT

or just get on FB and look for M0HZT - Jenn or BYLARA

see ya there

Wednesday, March 2, 2016


Follow Field Day on Facebook and Twitter! ARRL has created a Field Day event on Facebook, and you can also join the conversation by using the hash tag #ARRLFD. Share your plans, tips and tricks to a successful Field Day!

To work as many stations as possible on any and all amateur bands (excluding the 60, 30, 17, and 12-meter bands) and to learn to operate in abnormal situations in less than optimal conditions. Field Day is open to all amateurs in the areas covered by the ARRL/RAC Field Organizations and countries within IARU Region 2. DX stations residing in other regions may be contacted for credit, but are not eligible to submit entries.

Field Day is always the fourth full weekend of June, beginning at 1800 UTC Saturday and running through 2059 UTC Sunday. Field Day 2016 is June 25-26.

Any Amateur Radio band except 12, 17, 30 and 60 Meters.

Log Submission Deadline-
Entries must be postmarked, emailed or submitted by Tuesday, July 26, 2016. Late entries cannot be accepted.

Rules, Entry Forms and Information Packets-
2016 Field Day Packet (complete)
2016 Field Day Rules
2016 Field Day Summary Sheet
2016 W1AW / K6KPH Bulletin Schedule
2016 Field Day Public Relations Packet
2016 Field Day Information Flier
2016 Field Day VHF/UHF Information
2016 Field Day Log Sheet
2016 ARRL/RAC Section List

taken from

Tuesday, February 9, 2016

What are Amateur radio DIGITAL MODES? with DOWNLOADS

What is an Amateur radio DIGITAL MODE?

Digital Modes are a means of operating Amateur radio from the computer keyboard. The computer acts as modem (modulator - demodulator), as well as allowing you to type, and see what the other person types. It also controls the transmitter, changes modes as required, and provides various convenient features such as easy tuning of signals and prearranged messages.

In this context, we are talking about modes used on the HF (high frequency) bands, specifically chat modes, those used to have a regular conversation in a similar way to voice or Morse, where one operator talks for a minute or two, then another does the same. These chat modes allow multiple operators to take part in a net.

Because of sophisticated digital signal processing which takes place inside the computer, digital modes can offer performance that cannot be achieved using voice (and in some cases even Morse), through reduced bandwidth, improved signal-to-noise performance and reduced transmitter power requirement. Some modes also offer built-in automatic error correction.

Digital Mode operating procedure is not unlike Morse operation, and many of the same abbreviations are used. Software such as Fldigi makes this very simple as most of the procedural business is set up for you using the Function Keys at the top of the keyboard. These are easy to learn.

note: this is taken from

AMTOR is an FSK mode that is hardly used by radio amateurs in the 21st Century. While a robust mode, it only has 5 bits (as did its predecessor RTTY) and can not transfer extended ASCII or any binary data. With a set operating rate of 100 baud, it does not effectively compete with the speed and error correction of more modern ARQ modes like Pactor. The non-ARQ version of this mode is known as FEC, and known as SITOR-B by the Marine Information services.
To hear what an Amtor signal sounds like, click the sound iconsound_icon

PACTOR is an FSK mode and is a standard on modern Multi-Mode TNCs. It is designed with a combination of packet and Amtor Techniques. Although this mode is also fading in use, it is the most popular ARQ digital mode on amateur HF today and primarily used by amateurs for sending and receiving email over the radio. This mode is a major advancement over AMTOR, with its 200 baud operating rate, Huffman compression technique and true binary data transfer capability.
To hear what a Pactor signal sounds like, click the sound iconsound_icon

G-TOR (Golay -TOR) is an FSK mode that offers a fast transfer rate compared to Pactor. It incorporates a data inter-leaving system that assists in minimizing the effects of atmospheric noise and has the ability to fix garbled data. G-TOR tries to perform all transmissions at 300 baud but drops to 200 baud if difficulties are encountered and finally to 100 baud. (The protocol that brought back those good photos of Saturn and Jupiter from the Voyager space shots was devised by M.Golay and now adapted for ham radio use.) GTOR is a proprietary mode developed by Kantronics. Because it is only available with Kantronics multi-mode TNCs, it has never gained in popularity and is rarely used by radio amateurs.
To hear what a G-TOR signal sounds like, click the sound iconsound_icon

PACTOR II is a robust and powerful PSK mode which operates well under varying conditions. It uses strong logic, automatic frequency tracking; it is DSP based and as much as 8 times faster then Pactor. Both PACTOR and PACTOR-2 use the same protocol handshake, making the modes compatible. As with the original Pactor, it is rarely used by radio amateurs since the development of the new PC based sound card modes. Also, like GTOR, it is a proprietary mode owned by SCS and only available with their line of multi-mode TNC controllers.
To hear what a PactorII signal sounds like, click the sound iconsound_icon

CLOVER is a PSK mode which provides a full duplex simulation. It is well suited for HF operation (especially under good conditions), however, there are differences between CLOVER modems. The original modem was named CLOVER-I, the latest DSP based modem is named CLOVER-II. Clovers key characteristics are band-width efficiency with high error-corrected data rates. Clover adapts to conditions by constantly monitoring the received signal. Based on this monitoring, Clover determines the best modulation scheme to use.
To hear what a Clover signal sounds like, click the sound iconsound_icon

RTTY or "Radio Teletype" is a FSK mode that has been in use longer than any other digital mode (except for morse code). RTTY is a very simple technique which uses a five-bit code to represent all the letters of the alphabet, the numbers, some punctuation and some control characters. At 45 baud (typically) each bit is 1/45.45 seconds long, or 22 ms and corresponds to a typing speed of 60 WPM. There is no error correction provided in RTTY; noise and interference can have a seriously detrimental effect. Despite its relative disadvantages, RTTY is still popular with many radio amateurs. This mode has now been implemented with commonly available PC sound card software.
To hear what a RTTY signal sounds like, click the sound iconsound_icon

PSK31 is the first new digital mode to find popularity on HF bands in many years. It combines the advantages of a simple variable length text code with a narrow bandwidth phase-shift keying (PSK) signal using DSP techniques. This mode is designed for "real time" keyboard operation and at a 31 baud rate is only fast enough to keep up with the typical amateur typist. PSK31 enjoys great popularity on the HF bands today and is presently the standard for live keyboard communications. Most of the ASCII characters are supported. A second version having four (quad) phase shifts (QPSK) is available that provides Forward Error Correction (FEC) at the cost of reduced Signal to Noise ratio. Since PSK31 was one of the first new digital sound card modes to be developed and introduced, there are numerous programs available that support this mode - most of the programs available as "freeware".
To hear what a PSK31 signal sounds like, click the sound iconsound_icon

HF PACKET (300 baud) radio is a FSK mode that is an adaption of the very popular Packet radio used on VHF (1200 baud) FM amateur radio. Although the HF version of Packet Radio has a much reduced bandwidth due to the noise levels associated with HF operation, it maintains the same protocols and ability to "node" many stations on one frequency. Even with the reduced bandwidth (300 baud rate), this mode is unreliable for general HF ham communications and is mainly used to pass routine traffic and data between areas where VHF repeaters maybe lacking. HF and VHF Packet has recently enjoyed a resurgence in popularity since it is the protocol used by APRS - Automatic Position Reporting System mostly on 2 meter VHF and 30 meter HF.
To hear what a packet signal sounds like, click the sound iconsound_icon

HELLSCHREIBER is a method of sending and receiving text using facsimile technology. This mode has been around along time. It was actually developed by Germany prior to World War II! The recent use of PC sound cards as DSP units has increased the interest in Hellschreiber and many programs now support this new...well I mean, old mode. The single-tone version (Feld-Hell) is the method of choice for HF operation. It is an on-off keyed system with 122.5 dots/second, or about a 35 WPM text rate, with a narrow bandwidth (about 75 Hz). Text characters are "painted" on the screen, as apposed to being decoded and printed. Thus, many different fonts can be used for this mode including some basic graphic characters. A new "designer" flavor of this mode called PSK HELL has some advantage for weak signal conditions. As with other "fuzzy modes" it has the advantage of using the "human processor" for error correction; making it the best overall mode for live HF keyboard communications. Feld-Hell also has the advantage of having a low duty cycle meaning your transmitter will run much cooler with this mode.
To hear what a Hellschreiber signal sounds like, click the sound iconsound_icon

MT63 is a new DSP based mode for sending keyboard text over paths that experience fading and interference from other signals. It is accomplished by a complex scheme to encode text in a matrix of 64 tones over time and frequency. This overkill method provides a "cushion" of error correction at the receiving end while still providing a 100 WPM rate. The wide bandwidth (1Khz for the standard method) makes this mode less desirable on crowded ham bands such as 20 meters. A fast PC (166 Mhz or faster) is needed to use all functions of this mode. MT63 is not commonly used by amateurs because of its large bandwidth requirement and the difficulty in tuning in an MT63 transmission.
To hear what a MT63 signal sounds like, click the sound iconsound_icon

THROB is yet another new DSP sound card mode that attempts to use Fast Fourier Transform technology (as used by waterfall displays). THROB is actually based on tone pairs with several characters represented by single tones. It is defined as a "2 of 8 +1 tone" system, or more simply put, it is based on the decode of tone pairs from a palette of 9 tones. The THROB program is an attempt to push DSP into the area where other methods fail because of sensitivity or propagation difficulties and at the same time work at a reasonable speed. The text speed is slower than other modes but the author (G3PPT) has been improving his MFSK (Multiple Frequency Shift Keying) program. Check his web site for the latest developments.
To hear what a Throb signal sounds like, click the sound iconsound_icon

MFSK16 is an advancement to the THROB mode and encodes 16 tones. The PC sound card for DSP uses Fast Fourier Transform technology to decode the ASCII characters, and Constant Phase Frequency Shift Keying to send the coded signal. Continuous Forward Error Correction (FEC) sends all data twice with an interleaving technique to reduce errors from impulse noise and static crashes. A new improved Varicode is used to increase the efficiency of sending extended ASCII characters, making it possible to transfer short data files between stations under fair to good conditions. The relatively wide bandwidth (316 Hz) for this mode allows faster baud rates (typing is about 42 WPM) and greater immunity to multi path phase shift. A second version called MFSK8 is available with a lower baud rate (8) but greater reliability for DXing when polar phase shift is a major problem. Both versions are available in a nice freeware Windows program created by IZ8BLY.
To hear what an MFSK16 signal sounds like, click the sound iconsound_icon

is intended for extremely weak but slowly-varying signals, such as those found on troposcatter or Earth-Moon-Earth (EME, or "moonbounce") paths. It can decode signals many decibels below the noise floor, and often allows amateurs to successfully exchange contact information without signals being audible to the human ear. Like the other digital modes, multiple-frequency shift keying is employed. However unlike the other digitalmodes, messages are transmitted as atomic units after being compressed and then encoded with a process known as forward error correction (or "FEC"). The FEC adds redundancy to the data, such that all of a message may be successfully recovered even if some bits are not received by the receiver. (The particular code used for JT65 is Reed-Solomon.) Because of this FEC process, messages are either decoded correctly or not decoded at all, with very high probability. After messages are encoded, they are transmitted using MFSK with 65 tones. Operators have also begun using the JT65 mode for contacts on the HF bands, often using QRP (very low transmit power usually less than 5 watts). While the mode was not originally intended for HF use, its popularity has resulted in several new programs being developed and enhancements to the original WSJT in order to facilitate HF operation.
To hear what a JT65 signal sounds like, click the sound iconsound_icon

Olivia was developed by Pawel Jalocha and is a ham radio digital mode designed to work in difficult (low s/n ratios plus multipath propagation) conditions on HF bands. The signal can be decoded even when it is 10-14 db below the noise floor (i.e. when the amplitude of the noise is slightly over 3 times that of the signal). It can also decode well under other noise, QSB, QRM, flutter caused by polar path propagation and even auroral conditions. Currently the only other digital modes that match or exceed Olivia in sensitivity are some of the WSJT program modes that include JT65A and JT65-HF which are certainly limited in usage and definitely not true conversation capable.

The standard Olivia formats (bandwidth/tones) are 125/4, 250/8, 500/16, 1000/32, and 2000/64. However the most commonly used formats in order of use are 500/16, 500/8, 1000/32, 250/8, and 1000/16. This can cause some confusion and problems with so many formats and so many other digital modes. After getting used to the sound and look of Olivia in the waterfall, though, it becomes easier to identify the format when you encounter it. About 90% of all current Olivia activity on the air is one of the 2 formats : 500/16 and 1000/32.
To hear what an Olivia 500/16 signal sounds like, click the sound iconsound_icon
To hear what an Olivia 1000/32 signal sounds like, click the sound iconsound_icon

DominoEX is a digital mode using MFSK (Multi-Frequency Shift Keying), used to send data (for example, hand-typed text) by radio. MFSK sends data using many different tones, sent one at a time. Each tone element ('symbol') can carry several bits of data. Most other digital modes uses each tone to represent only one bit. Thus the symbol rate is much lower for the same data rate when MFSK is used. This is beneficial, since it leads to high sensitivity with good data rate and modest bandwidth. More importantly, low symbol rates are less effected by multi-path reception timing effects.

Therefore MFSK is ideal for HF operation since it has good noise rejection and good immunity to most propagation distortion effects which adversely affect reception of other modes. MFSK is already used on HF by modes such as MFSK16, ALE, THROB and Olivia, but DominoEX improves on the MFSK types of modes by employing an Incremental Frequency Keying strategy. DominoEX is also a reasonably narrow-band mode along the lines of MFSK16 or RTTY.

A narrow-band application of MFSK presents some challenges. The main problem is that radio transceivers with high stability and tuning accuracy are usually required, since very small frequency steps are used for example when ompared with RTTY. MFSK is also prone to interference from data arriving from different ionospheric paths, and like many modes, it is prone to interference from fixed carriers within the data passband. Forward Error Correction (FEC) can be deployed to reduce errors, but such modes can become slow and difficult to operate or the modes consume an excessive an excessive amount of bandwidth. With DominoEX, a different approach was taken, concentrating on perfecting the design for best Near Vertical Incidence Signal or NVIS reception without requiring FEC. All the inherent MFSK problems are also avoided or much reduced.

DominoEX uses a series of new techniques to counter the general limitations of MFSK. To avoid tuning problems, IFK (Incremental Frequency Keying) is used, where the data is represented not by the frequency of each tone, but by the frequency difference between one tone and the next, an equivalent idea to differential PSK. An additional technique, called Offset Incremental Keying (IFK+) is used to manage the tone sequence in order to counter inter-symbol interference caused by multi-path reception. This gives the mode a great improvement in robustness.

Like Olivia above, there are several variations of the DominoEX mode: DominoEX4, DominoEX5, DominoEX8, DominoEX11, DominoEX16 and finally DominoEX22. The higher the number the faster the speed of transmission so difficult conditions it may be wise to use the slower speed, while good conditions might allow for faster speeds.
To hear what a DominoEX8 signal sounds like, click the sound iconsound_icon
To hear what a DominoEX16 signal sounds like, click the sound iconsound_icon

Contestia is a digital mode directly derived from Olivia but not quite as robust. It is more of a compromise between speed and performance. It was developed by Nick Fedoseev, UT2UZ who is also one of the key developers of the MixW Mult-digital mode software application used by many hams. Contestia sounds almost identical to Olivia, can be configured in as many ways, but has essentially twice the speed.

Contestia has 40 formats just like Olivia. The formats vary in bandwidth (125,250,500,1000, and 2000hz) and number of tones used (2,4,8,16,32,64,128, or 256). The most commonly used formats right now seem to be 250/8, 500/16, and 1000/32.

So just how well does Contestia perform under very weak signal conditions. Surprisingly well as it handles QRM, QRN, and QSB very easily. It decodes below the noise level but experience has shown that Olivia still outperforms Contestia depending on which variation of the modes are used. However, Contestia is twice as fast as Olivia on a given variation of each respective mode. It is an excellent weak signal, conversational, QRP, and long distance digital mode. When using it for keyboard to keyboard conversation under fair to good conditions, it can be more preferable to many hams than Olivia because of the faster speed.

Contestia get it's increased speed by using a smaller symbol block size (32) than Olivia (64) and by a using 6-bit decimal character set rather than 7-bit ASCII set that Olivia does. Because it has a reduced character set and does not print out in both upper and lower case. Some traffic nets might not want to use this mode because it does not support upper and lower case characters and extended characters found in many documents and messages. For normal digital chats that does not pose any problem, but also because of these limitations, Contestia has not seen much use and is more of a novelty mode.
To hear what a Contestia signal sounds like, click the sound iconsound_icon

"WB8NUT helps write article on Digital Modes for World Radio Magazine
In early 2013 I assisted in writing an article on digital modes for World Radio Magazine titled Diving into the Alphabet Soup. A copy of the article in pdf format can be downloaded by clicking this link. It was published in the April 2013 edition of the on-line magazine."

Download Digital Mode Soundcard Software

Digipan - Great PSK31 Software (Freeware)
FLDigi - Great Multi Mode Application and it runs on Windows, MAC OSX, and Linux. Plenty of add-ons and a messaging package (NBEMS) which is very useful for emergency communication (Freeware)
Hamscope - PSK31, RTTY, ASCII, MFSK, Packet and CW (Freeware)
IZ8BLY Hellschreiber - All popular Hell modes (Freeware)
MixW - The soundcard based software that does all the modes! (Shareware - Reasonable)
Stream by IZ8BLY for MFSK (Freeware)

Need an Interface between your Transceiver and the Computer?
WB8NUT recommends the Donner Digital Interface - Simple, Affordable, Easy to connect!
Works First Time - Every Time
Visit Donner Digital Interfaces by Clicking anywhere on this text!

The Predominate USA HF Digital Frequencies

160 Meters
1.838.150 PSK31,
1.890 SSTV

80 Meters
3.580 to 3.620 Data (RTTY, PSK31, Hellschreiber, MFSK16)
3.620 to 3.635 Packet
3.845 SSTV

40 Meters
7.035.150 PSK31
7.037 Hellschreiber, MFSK16
7.076 JT65
7.080 RTTY
7.171 SSTV

30 Meters

10.130 PSK31
10.130 to 10.140 RTTY
10.137 Hellschreiber
10.140 to 10.150 Packet, APRS

20 Meters
14.063.5 Hellschreiber
14.070.150 PSK31
14.070 to 14.095 RTTY
14.076 JT65
14.080 MFSK16
14.100.5 to 14.112 Packet
14.230 SSTV
14.233 SSTV

17 Meters
18.100 to 18.105 RTTY
18.103 Hellschreiber
18.105 MFSK16
18.105 to 18.110 Packet

15 Meters
21.063 Hellschreiber
21.070 to 21.100 RTTY
21.070.150 PSK31
21.076 JF65
21.080 MFSK16
21.100 to 21.110 Packet
21.340 SSTV

12 Meters
24.920 to 24.925 RTTY
24.925 to 24.930 Packet
24.929 MFSK16

10 Meters
28.070 to 28.150 RTTY
28.076 JT65
28.080 MFSK16
28.120.150 PSK31, Hellschreiber
28.680 SSTV
28.690 SSTV - some SSTV repeaters on this Frequency
28.700 SSTV

6 Meters
50.276 JT65
50.680 SSTV

2 Meters

145.500 SSTV - National SSTV Simplex Frequency for FM
145.550 PSK31, Hellschreiber, MFSK16

this was taken from

for all digital mode software please use :
thanx to Craig AC4M

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