Thursday, April 30, 2020

Antennas, Grounding, Counterpoise, etc HOW TO

This is where all information about Antennas, grounding, Counterpoises reside



this is what I refer to as the main section of the antenna.    check yours and reply here to let me know what state your coax is in?  it is wet, touching the trees, is it bent?   did you solder it perfect?

I always use the arrl antenna book when i am soldering coax.     check it out.

ps: check out   facebook.com/ylrl

33

got picture from http://www.jpole-antenna.com  thank you





this is a dipole I am planning on making.... (made it  and  it  worked  VERY GOOD) 1:1

Vertical Dipole for 15 Meters and would love to make one also for 10 meters.

feet = 468/28.390 = 16.50 feet 10 meters

feet = 468/21.325 = 22 feet 15 meters

I have 10 gauge shielded wire (good stuff) for verticals

ka1uln




here are the notes from the May 21 presentation

session May 21, 2015 echolink 8 pm Yl NFarl-r



Grounding (RODS and Ribbons)
May 21, 2015 YLRL echolink net

An effective ground system is necessary for every amateur station.
The mission of the ground system is twofold. FIRST, it reduces the possibility of electrical shocks if something in a piece of equipment should fail and the chassis or cabinet become “HOT.” If connected properly, three-wire electrical systems ground the chassis. A ground system to prevent shock hazard is generally referred to as “DC GROUND.”

The second job the ground system must perform is to provide a low-impedance path to ground for any stray RF current inside the station. Stray RF can cause equipment to malfunction and contributes to RFI problems. This low-impedance path is usually called “RF GROUND.”

The first step in building a ground system is to bound together the chassis of all equipment in your station. Ordinary hookup wire will do for a dc ground, but for a good RF ground you need a low-impedance conductor, COPPER STRAP sold as 'flashing copper,” is excellent for this application, it maybe hard to find. Braid for coaxial cable is popular choice; it is readily available, makes a low-impedance conductor, and is flexible. You see this on roofs in south and west.

Grounding straps can be run from equipment chassis to equipment chassis.1/2 copper water pipe runs entire length of operating bench. A thick braid from RG-8 cable runs from each piece of equipment to a clamp on the pipe.

After equipment is bonded to common ground bus the ground bus must be wired to a good earth ground. This run should be with heavy conductor (braid – I CALL RIBBON) should be short and direct as possible.

Drive one or more grounds rods into earth where conductor leaves the house. Ground rods-8 to 10 feet can be acquired from electrical supply house (home depot or lowe's or the like) steel with heavy copper plating.

Once rod is in ground clamp the conductor from the station ground bus to it with a clamp that can be tightened securely and will NOT RUST. Copper-plated clamps made specifically for this purpose can be found and electrical supply stores. If possible solder the connection.

ANOTHER popular station ground is the COLD (not hot) water pipe system in the building.
Length of of ground wire should be multiple of ¼ wave.

Ground noise:
Noise in ground systems can affect sensitive radio equipment. It is usually related to one of three problems:
1. Insufficient ground conductor wire
2. Loose ground connections or
3. Ground loops

liberal use lock washer and star washers is highly recommended
Ground noise can affect receive and transmitted signals

The antennas that we mount are affected by the presence of ground. At times, the ground is a reflector and at other times, it is an absorber.
The ground around the base of a quarter wave vertical antenna needs considerable help in the form of radials, if this type of antenna is to perform well.
When an antenna that is a near ground radiates, some of the energy will strike the ground and some of the energy will be reflected. The reflected energy will bounce back to the antenna and effect the pattern of current distribution in the radiator, and thus effect the pattern and the feedpoint impedance of the antenna.



After antennas, station grounding is probably the most discussed subject in amateur radio and it is also the one replete with the most misconceptions. The first thing to know is that there are three functions served by grounding in ham shacks: 1. Electrical Safety 2. Stray RF Suppression (or simply RF Grounding) 3. Lightning Protection. Each has it's own set of requirements, but not all station setups need every kind of ground. In fact, some setups don't use a ground at all! The articles on this page will help clear up some of the myths and mystery surrounding this popular topic.

Grounds fulfill three distinct functions. The best ground for one function isn't necessarily the best for another. The three are:
a. Safety ground. This protects you from a shock hazard if one of the mains or high voltage power supply wires contacts the chassis due to some kind of fault. The requirements for this ground are spelled out in your state's electrical code. I believe that most states adopt the National Electrical Code (NEC). The safety ground conductor in your wall sockets should be connected to ground according to this code, and your rig's chassis should be connected to the safety ground.

b. Lightning ground. The requirements for a ground for lightning protection are much more stringent than for a safety ground. The topic has been discussed in this group many times, and there are numerous resources available for learning how to make a ground system for lightning protection. (See the TIS Page on Lightning Protection)

c. RF ground. This is required only for certain types of antennas-- ones which require current flow to ground to complete the antenna circuit. An example is a quarter-wave vertical. One wire of the feedline connects to the base of the antenna, and the other connects to ground. The connection to ground has to have a low RF resistance, or you'll expend too much of your power heating the ground. A few radial wires will provide a moderately low loss connection. A ground rod will help a little, but the RF resistance will be high, resulting in quite a bit of loss. Chapter 8 of the ARRL Antenna Book shows the approximate trade between resistance and number of radials. If your antenna is much shorter than ¼ wavelength, you'll need many, many radials to get reasonable efficiency. If it's longer, you can get by with fewer. A ½ wavelength base-fed vertical needs only a very modest ground, and a ground rod is adequate. The requirements for various other end-fed antennas depend on their length. If you use a "complete" antenna like a dipole or a ground plane (that is, one that doesn't require your feedline to connect to ground), you don't need a RF ground, as long as you keep common-mode currents off your feedline. A "current" or "choke" balun is most commonly used for this.




Radials:

Counterpoises:


Rods:

Besides one lead from inside the shack, the others go to several other well spaced ground rods, a lead to the tower base (which has it's own ground system), and finally, the power company ground, which is only about a foot away.

73
K9WN Jake
picture is taken from k9wn


Youtube video showing how to drive a 10 foot ground rod into the ground with water.
link>

Ribbons:




Is Your Radio Equipment REALLY Grounded?

You may believe your radio equipment, antenna and tower are well-grounded. After all, you drove the ground rods into the earth yourself and connected the ground wire to the rods with heavy-duty clamps.

With an ohmmeter, I measured an open circuit from the ground wire to its grounding clamp! This was true for both the equipment ground outside my radio room and for the ground at the base of my beam antenna.

I do understand that contact points oxidize and their resistance increases. But the ohmmeter's needle didn't move even on the instrument's X 1000 range! I had no grounds that worked!

military handbook on grounding, bonding and shielding: A PDF download



any questions contact ag4yl or KA1ULN




















Grounding:

what kind of grounding do you have for your station?

Do you know what grounding is used for?

Please add your comments below about YOUR ground installation.


on May 21, at 8:00 EST come hear a understand Antennas part 3
GROUNDING: radials, counterpoises, rods and ribbons
FEATURING: ag4yl

Hope all of you can make it this week! We’ll be back on Echolink Node 560686 NF4GA-R repeater or locally on 145.47MHz PL100Hz (-) offset. It’s going to be a fun and exciting net! We are looking forward to everyone participating in the fun! Here’s how

thank you





here is some great information on dipoles thanx to KK4obi

Bent Dipoles link

there is more if you click on the link


This web site is devoted primarily as a resource for amateur radio operators
to see what happens if they bend a half-wave dipole.

The performance of a dipole is highest when it is not bent. When a half-wave or full-wave dipole is bent: the gain goes down; the resonant length gets shorter; the frequency goes higher; the impedance decreases. Only when the length is three or more half-wavelengths can bending increase gain as you transition into gull-wing, half-rhombic V and rhombic antennas.

To help understand what happens to a bent dipole, you will see graphs showing the changes in Gain, Resonant Length, SWR, etc. as well as polar charts of far field radiation patterns and 3D flyover views as a bend point is moved or angle of bend changes.

1. We start with bending the ends of an ordinary center-fed dipole limited by an attic, garden, wall, etc. or to reduce turning radius. We than look at bending a dipole in the middle... up and down, side to side... to form V or L-type configurations.
See illustrations of all eleven studies at: Center-fed Dipoles.

2. The second phase looks the same set of configurations but by feeding a dipole off-center, (OCF). This an outgrowth of antenna/coax matching because of the low impedance of dipoles in the V or L-form, not for multi-band application. However, as part of this, there is a study related to feed points up to the 6th harmonic.

3. The third phase deals with slow wave antennas for size reduction- primarily for cell phones, routers, printers, remote control, as well as radio frequency identification (RFID) for merchandise or toll/parking collection- but applied to amateur radio antennas. These studies include meander, zig-zag and catenary curve methods.

4. The information presented is derived from a mixture of practical antenna prototyping and wire antenna modeling used to find out what is going on and "what happens if...". The software used is 4NEC2, a Windows compatible program based on an NEC-2/ NEC-4 core (Numeric Electromagnetics Code). It is used to create, view and check antenna designs and generate displays of radiation patterns. Of particular importance for the studies reported here is its optimizer function which automatically adjusts antenna variables to find the best Gain, Resonance, Standing Wave Ratio (SWR), Efficiency, Front-to-Back ratio or combination thereof. Its sweep function then graphs Far Field Radiation Pattern and 3D view plus Reflection Coefficient, Reactance, Impedance and Phase over the range of frequencies of interest.





here is some more information on beverage antennas w8ji thanx

beverage antennas link


My History With Beverages

I originally began experimenting with long, low, wire antennas in the 1960's. Even though I had a working mostly homebrew station, I now realize I had only a small idea what I was doing, and almost no understanding of what made antennas work.

My entry into Ham radio was from modified broadcast radios, and the very active 160-meter mobile group in Toledo, Ohio. I always thought the longer the antenna, the better the "pickup". was fascinated by the distant AM broadcast, lower shortwave, and 160-meter signals heard with long antennas. My early antennas were nothing more than hundreds or thousands of feet of very thin magnet wire, strung over tree limbs and along telephone poles (which had steel climbing pegs), all through a typical crowded 1950's suburban neighborhood. Unfortunately my early experiments were hampered by lack of room. Thin magnet wire, unwound from early-radio speaker field magnets, strung in the middle of the night through a crowded suburban neighborhood across neighbor's small lots, doesn't stay up long.

In the early 1970's, I moved to a house with several acres of woods. The soil was a very wet, sandy, black loam. A neighbor just north of me, W8FPU (Parker) was actually working a couple of VK's on 160-meters, something very rare at the time. Using information from a series of engineering lectures by John "Jack" Kuecken (now SK) and correspondence with Stew W1BB, I installed my first "real" Beverage antenna. I was delighted to find a large improvement in weak-signal reception from very simple, inexpensive, easy-to-install wire antennas. Eventually, that system evolved from a few long single wires to a two-wire reversible system. The two-wire system used two Beverages, oriented 90 degrees from each other. This gave four direction coverage. That system, with the addition of an in-phase and out-of-phase combiner, evolved into a forced-null system using just two reversible antennas. This was before binocular cores were available, and ferrite beads were just appearing. At the early date, I used a series of 73-mix beads to make my transformers, even publishing a few articles in small newsletters.

I continued to improve or refine my Beverage antennas over the years. Virtually all of my Beverage antennas now are arrays of multiple Beverages, not just single wires. While my large circle arrays of verticals, or broadside endfire arrays of verticals, are about even with two long phased Beverages, the Beverage arrays are simpler systems. Arrays of broadside Beverages remain my primary DX receiving antennas for the lowest bands. There isn't any other receiving antenna that is as simple, as easy to construct and maintain, and as foolproof as a Beverage! The only significant Beverage disadvantage is the long physical length required, and maintenance of a very long antenna. If we want significant directivity, Beverages (like all long wire arrays) require a great deal of space .

Testing and Comparing Antennas

I work a little different than many or most people when experimenting, always A-B testing and comparing antennas over time. This is partly because a newer, bigger, or better looking antenna always feels better. Even before something is used, especially if the "something new" involved effort or expense, we can "like" it and become emotionally invested in it. We want something new to work better, so we look for everything "good".

I credit a 7th and 8th grade science teacher for educating students about this phenomena. Early in school, a science teacher at Olney middle school in Northwood, Ohio demonstrated how easily and often false conclusions are reached, based on feelings about results or past performance memory. One year of science with Mr. Kohler, when I was 12 or 13 years old, changed how I look at many things in life. Because of Mr. Kohler, I almost always retain a reference or control, try to use direct measurements of what I actually want to know, and use multiple methods when possible. Mr. Kohler demonstrated how easy it was to reach false conclusions, unless we use valid measurements.

Most antenna myths and misconceptions, many making it into print in articles, come from repeating feelings or unsubstantiated claims, or are based on improper measurements or models. I've seen comparisons years apart, going on memory of how signals were on some other antenna that was long gone!

I presently have a great deal of room, with wiring in place to install multiple antennas, and reasonably good test equipment. This allows installation of multiple antenna systems at the same time, which allows direct comparisons over time, as well as measurements. I constantly refine antenna systems by comparing systems against each other for extended periods of time, usually more than a year.

there are more pictures and documents please go to link above


***************************************************************************


I found a great video which guides you through making a 10 meter dipole.
it really is excellent... easy to understand. and easy to do..

here is the link to the video:how to build a 10 meter dipole


if you like it please let me know....
if you hate it and know of a better one please let me know via the comments
just below this post.

thank you so much





Wednesday, April 29, 2020

WHERE TO FIND YLs - Amateur Radio Operators


This is where the YLs in the KNOW are!

1. Wednesday mornings  8:30 am    3.912     all yls
2. Facebook  yl ham radio operators lots and lots of yls from all over the world  on 24/7
friend  me  and   I will add you      Niece  KAONEULN
3. YL net wednesday  14.288  (YL  frequency)   wednesday   at  01:00 utc   wb1aru  runs   the   net
4. YL op net   thursday  night  00:01 utc  8 pm  est  www.echolink.org come to ALARA conference  node
5. Check out     ka1uln.blogspot.com    <    for  all  amateurs    but  focused  for   yls 6. the master YL net list is at www.ylharmonics.org






7. www.YLRL.org

8. DMR WWYL talkgroup tg 955 saturday morning 10:00 am est

9. DOYL Day of the YL's contest May 24 & 25
see the facebook page https://www.facebook.com/groups/746304389193363/about/
or
http://ka1uln.blogspot.com/p/the-day-of-yls.html

in memory of Carine F5ISY


iF I have forgot anything please forward it to me and i will insert it with your credit and callsign

When attending any Amateur Radio Ham fest please LOOK for the YL table.

always give YLs priority on all the bands.

tell em Niece (knee-see sent ya)

DOYL - Copyright © 2018 KA1ULN and M0HZT

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

POTA - Parks On the Air (TIPS)

Parks On the Air www.parksontheair.com



here are some tips and docs to help with a POTA activation


1. please remember to bring your Amateur Radio ID or something like that
2. how to get started
3. World Wide Flora Fauna
4. KFF World Wide Flora Fauna
5. POTA LOG
6. earphones
7. handouts to public asking questions (YL's bring some YLRL information)

Monday, March 18, 2019

United States hams operating outside of US... what to do?

Operating Overseas Operating Overseas FAQ
1) Does the country you will be visiting participate in a multilateral reciprocal operating
authority--CEPT or IARP? If so, operate under CEPT or IARP.
2) If it does not, can I obtain a Reciprocal Operating Permit even if the country does not share a Reciprocal Operating Agreement (bilateral) with the US? Yes
3) Are you traveling to Canada? The US and Canada share an automatic reciprocal operating agreement. How can I operate outside the US?

You can find a complete listing of the requirement for a country or countries at Operating Information by Country. This includes most countries, including CEPT and IARP participating countries.

How can I operate when CEPT or IARP isn't possible?
Yes. It is possible to obtain a permit a permit for almost every country in the world. Although ARRL maintains paper files at HQ, the most up-to-date information on obtaining permission to operate in a country can be found online at the ARRL Web site or on the Web site of Veikko Komppa, OH2MCN. ARRL HQ and Veke, OH2MCN, work together to make sure that up-to-date information appears.

This can include information on the national Amateur Radio society, repeaters and local clubs. Information on travel warnings in a particular country can be obtained from the US Department of State with the primary purpose of alerting the public to adverse conditions in specific countries.


Are there guidelines for obtaining a permit? The most complete information appears on the ARRL Web page. If specific application information for a country on this page is unavailable or unclear, write a letter of request or send an e-mail to the countries telecommunications authority for a permit. Include information on the purpose of your trip, the dates and place(s) of your stay, your passport and the equipment you intend to use. Attach to it a photocopy of your amateur radio license issued by FCC. In some cases where Amateur Radio is not widespread, a letter attesting to your character signed by the chief of police (or equivalent) of your hometown might help if attached.

Submit your application as much in advance of your trip as possible. It may take 30 to 90 days or more to be processed. Do not forget to keep a photocopy of everything you send for future reference. This does not guarantee that you will get operating permission, but it is a start. In many cases, it is important to have contacts in a country and the IARU society of that country may be helpful. What are my privileges are in the country I will visit? When operating under CEPT or IARP, there are two classes: Class 1 licensees are those who have demonstrated proficiency in Morse code to the licensing agency. They may operate with the same privileges they are authorized in their home country provided that they do not exceed those privileges granted to the highest class license available in the country. Class 2 licensees have not demonstrated proficiency in Morse code to their national telecommunications agency and are limited to privileges above 50 MHz. If the country does not participate in CEPT or IARP, the privileges are whatever the telecommunications agency granting the reciprocal operating authority says that they are. If not specified, the ITU Regional provisions apply generally, but there may be exceptions. How can I operate my station in Canada? When a US amateur operates in Canada, simply bring your FCC license, proof of your US citizenship (a birth certificate or other proof) and identify as call / Canadian identifier, like N1KB/VE3. At least once during the communication, you must state your geographical location, like "30 km north of Toronto."

http://www.arrl.org/us-amateurs-operating-overseas


Friday, March 15, 2019

Ladder Line - LOW LOSS - LOW LOSS


this Information is specifically about ladder line.



here is an example of a dipole with ladder line


REMEMBER LADDER LINE HAS LOWER LOSS THAN COAX.


here is a typical dipole design

Spacing of the wires in ladder line (and their relative diameter) sets the impedance of the line.



advantages of ladder line
LOW LOSS, less expensive, easy to make, perfect for dipole or loop


disadvantages of ladder line
should not touch almost anything, (house, leaves, metal, trees, etc)


if you know of more tips to help other hams please forward your information to
KA1ULN@MAIL.COM

THANX SO MUCH

33/73

Wednesday, January 9, 2019

NEAR-FEST Deerfield New Hampshire May 3 and 4 2019



NEAR-Fest http://near-fest.com/
New England Amateur Radio Festival
OUR TENTH YEAR!
NEAR-Fest XX
May 3 and 4 2019
Deerfield, New Hampshire
Admission Tickets
Tickets
Open Now
Get your NEAR-Ly Free Ticket!
Vendor and Exhibitors
Vendors
Vendors and Exhibitors
Open Now!
Door Prizes (NEAR-Fest XX)
There will be TWO Grand Prize Drawings at NEAR-Fest XX
That’s right, TWO KX3 Radios will be given away, one on Friday – One on Saturday
More Details: How to Win
Elecraft KX3
Be sure to get your NEAR-Ly free ticket stubs into the barrel in the relaxation area





— FAQs —
There seems to be some confusion with some people about logging in/registering on this web site:
You do NOT need to log in/register to view this web site. The only reason to do so is if you are going to make a purchase.
If you are a registered user on the Forum at forum.near-fest.com, this is a SEPARATE registration process, your login and password may be different.
Only Vendors are required to register per the expectations of the Commercial Operations Staff of NEAR-Fest. Most have done so years ago and return year after year.
Admission tickets (which include an opportunity for winning a Door Prize) and inside parking passes CAN be purchased at this site, and users are required to register at this site if you want to complete an online purchase.. HOWEVER, purchasing admission tickets online is NOT REQUIRED, tickets and inside parking passes can also be purchased at the Gate. If tickets are purchased at this site please bring your receipt with you and produce it at the gate. You will be given the number of tickets purchased. NO TICKETS WILL BE MAILED.
If you are making a purchase and are unregistered, you register by following the links which take you to the appropriate pages to make your purchase. READ THE DIRECTIONS AND EXPLANATIONS SPECIFIC TO EACH TYPE OF PURCHASE, then select the items you wish to purchase and fill out the contact form at the bottom of the purchase page so we will have a record of your purchase. Admission Tickets and Inside Parking Passes MUST be paid for at the time of your purchase. PLEASE MAKE SURE YOUR EMAIL ADDRESS IS ENTERED CORRECTLY. Admission ticket transactions entered but not paid for will be deleted. Once your purchase is complete you will receive an emailed purchase confirmation (bring this with you to NEAR-Fest) and a system-generated password for logging in to the web site.
Use your email address as the username and system generated password to log on to the site in the future. Once logged in go to “My Bookings” under the Home tab to look at your purchases. Now that you are registered you can simply log in to the web site to make purchases for the next NEAR-Fest.
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